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Janka Hardness Rating Scale For Wood Flooring Species
“Janka” is an International Standard Test for Relative Hardness. In North America, certifiable test results are provided by the
United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Services, Forest Products Laboratory.
JANKA (J) Ratings for various wood species are determined by the number of pounds of pressure required, to halfway press a steel ball, with a diameter of .444 inches, into the topside and ends of a board.
NORTHERN ONTARIO RED PINE @ ~ 2.5 lbs per sf. is approximately three (~3X) times more dense and harder than any White or Yellow Pine(s).
Durability is important but, Livability is Paramount ... when you are living with a spouse, kids, dogs, visitors.
Isn't Pine a Softwood?
Yes “pine” is considered a soft wood but, you can dispel any fears that Northern Red Pine is not hard and durable. In addition to Red Pine having a rating of three times (~3X) more dense and three times (~3X) stronger than other White Pine(s), Marreed-Prestman uses a “Diamond-Tough” (Preheated) “Diamond Tough” Resin FloodCoat TopCoat Finishing Technique”™ ... the 1st thick PourDown FloodCoat penetrates the wood and hardens the fibres dramatically while the 2nd FloodCoat is the Wear Coat and approximately ten (~10) times thicker than any Micro-Sprayed and Pre-Finished Floor.
In addition ... Marreed-Prestman prepares your Red Pine Floor — using professional 'Pine Flooring' finishing equipment — ready for finishing as normal — then, I uniformly break/unlock the grain of the wood surface using my (proprietary) Cold Sand ™ Method. (Cold Sanding opens the pores of the wood to accept the impregnation of “Diamond-Tough” (Preheated) Resin.)
NOTE: One should be aware of a “mass-market” or “less knowledgeable” craftsman who's methods may inadvertently burnish (seal/glaze) the wood surface and inhibit stain and/or resin impregnation — or worse — a “craftsman” who does not apply a “Blotching Inhibitor. Lastly, be aware of a “craftsman” who brush-coats a wood Flooring instead of applying professional (pour down) FloodCoats. Flood-coating has become a rare skill because it requires years of experience and a fluid technique to ensure impregnation of the seams and butt-ends and to ensure thick, even and long-lasting topcoats.
The Rock Pine ® Finishing Technique ™
My Cold Sand ™ surface readily accepts the application of my penetrating resin ... a “Diamond-Tough” (Preheated) Resin. This method of resin impregnation usually sets in twenty-four (24) hours. After which time, I abrade the Flooring and apply the PourDown FloodCoat Topcoat (wear coat). Again, using the (Preheated) “Diamond Tough” Resin. After twenty-four (24h) hours, the final finish is applied and set, the Flooring can be walked on with dry stocking feet. Life can return to “normal” after the Stage #1 four (4) day cure-time and furniture can usually be moved in after four (4) days (to avoid furniture 'imprinting' the Flooring before it reaches the stage II cure). Daily activities resumes as normal. After “living life as normal” and Thirty (30) days has passed, the Flooring is fully cured (Stage III). At Stage III, the Flooring is “Rock Solid” without leaving a slippery or 'plastic-looking' finish on the surface. My Cold Sand ™ and wood impregnation method can, therefore, rightly be considered “Rock Pine” ®. Your Flooring will have a natural, warm satin sheen and the comfortable, Hand-Crafted ambience of a Heritage Floor but, more importantly, it will be tough, durable and easy-care. Due to the affects of UV-Light, an exquisite patina will naturally set in within a year or two! The Flooring then, has Naturally Aged to Depth of Character.
Softwood or Soft Wood?
PineFlooring.CA provides a wealth of material to educate and entertain potential Clients ... understanding, of course, that even “Pine People”
are born with an inherent 'fear' that pine is (in general) 'a soft wood'. But, is Red Pine really a soft wood?
People who 'inherently' know ... really don't know ... Part I of II
RED Pine is greatly underestimated as a Flooring material. A playful explanation might have you consider that people simply do not know the facts ... or, when told the facts, refuse to understand or believe them.
“I've read the information on your website but I don't understand why it seems to be 'the exact opposite' of any research I have done. Is your pine different?”
People are familiar with the terms 'hardwood' and 'softwood' and interpret them (logically) to mean that a wood is either hard, dense and durable, or not. But, “the facts” are NOT logical ... they are in conflict because, Hardness, Density and Durability have nothing to do with the common terms of 'hardwood' or 'softwood' ... (brace yourself) ... these 'industry' labels are misleading as they actually refer only to the type of growth or tree vegetation that the wood is taken from.
I will paraphrase “Hardwoods & Softwoods” by: Clive Smith ... “The best example of contradictions to misleading labelling such as 'hardwood' and 'softwood' include balsa wood and RED (pitch) Pine's density and hardness. Balsa has a weight of ~4 lbs/cu.ft. yet, Balsa is classed as a 'hardwood'. Pitch (Coniferous) Pine, on the other hand, weighs five (5X) that of balsa at ~20 lbs/cu.sf. and is classified as a 'softwood.” As you know, balsa is light and is used to build model and toy aircraft whereas, pitch pine is used to build wharfs, piers, docks, warehouses, barns, ships and cathedrals. It has long been recognized in Europe as being strong and resilient to weather, mildew, 'predators', etc. ... Pitch Pine is classified as a 'softwood'.
Re: Canadian Woodworking: Issue #45 December 2006.
On a related matter; PineFlooring.CA uses winter-cut kiln-dried Northern Ontario Red Pine (N.O.R.P.) which weighs ~20 lbs/cu.ft. (prior to kiln-drying) whereas, Marreed-Prestman has never and will never consider using any White or Yellow Pine(s) or Eastern (NB) Red Pine for Flooring as their density/hardness is much less.
Why 'the inherent' discrepancy' between logic and reality?
In a world where people can not agree on any 'meaningful and logical standard', for anything ... compromise inevitably leads to confusion ... TRADITION dictates that hardwoods are taken from deciduous trees and softwoods are taken from coniferous trees — regardless or their relative hardness, density and durability. This fact is contradictory and misleading but, that's 'compromise'.
Why is the Softwood label misleading, and perhaps, unfair to consumers?
The 'softwood label' for many types of woods is unfair because people think that any and every wood classified as a Softwood is in fact, 'a soft wood', and vis-à-vis, people are unaware that a Hardwood is not always 'a hard wood'.
People who 'inherently' know ... really don't know ... Part II of II
Red Pine is greatly underestimated as a Flooring material. Again, a playful explanation might have you consider that a preacher — with the stature of a “Billy Graham” — could talk until he was “blue-in-the-face” and still, some people would ignore the fact that — in this day-and-age of space-age materials — a birch bark canoe impregnated with (Preheated) “Diamond Tough” Resin that is protected on its exterior surface with multiple FloodCoats of (Preheated) “Diamond Tough” Resin is “a thousand times stronger” than the traditional birch-bark canoe of old. What was once “nature's workhorse” for transporting people and supplies over lakes and rivers is now an 'unrecognizable' vessel capable of crossing oceans and attacking white-water canyons with abandon ... that is the improved strength and flexibility of today's space-age materials in resin technology.
People who 'inherently' know, really do not know ... the inherent hardness or softness of wood has little or no relationship to the Density, Hardness and Durability of a properly kilned, installed and finished natural wood Flooring. The quality of the finish is as important as the hardness and durability of the wood. A quality pine Flooring is crafted based on the integrity of materials, installation expertise and PourDown FloodCoat TopCoat finishing techniques.
“Pine People” know better than to “throw the baby out with the bath water” ... we want “the ambience” of the birch bark canoe for its connection to nature as it affects our living environment. Pine People value the warmth and beauty of Red Pine and understand the “durability” of 'modern technology' ... they do not want a synthetic 'pine' Flooring. As such, potential Client's inherently research their purchasing decision with some confusion when faced with conflicting information.
To confuse the issue further, Do Not Confuse “Hardness” with “Durability” or with the “Suitability” of any particular wood species for Flooring. All four (4) labels are — in a perfect world — completely separate issues. In this day-and-age of space-age materials — the critical element — in my opinion, is (Preheated) “Diamond Tough” Resin (Flooring finish).
Red Pine is a dense substrate (in comparison to other types of wood) and space-age Resins are more durable than traditional Epoxy Cured urethane ... and amazingly, about twice (~2X) as durable as “prefinished” Flooring finishes whereby manufacturers use acid and titanium additives because these fluid resins allow the use of NANO-technology (micro-spray film) that cures instantly under ultraviolet light (UVL) and results in production speed. But, people are human to a fault and, “inherent facts” will always remain in their lexicon. Marreed-Prestman understands the myths and the misunderstandings that are prevalent in the marketplace so — be fair to yourself — consider the valuable information provided throughout my website before you invest in wood Flooring of any kind. Because, an educated Client is predisposed to the Intrinsic Value of the Flooring I supply.
JANKA Rating, Client Question
Question: “I note Janka Hardness ratings for Pine vary dramatically... Why is this? Thanks, Doug, Mississauga, ON.”
Answer: As per your inquiry: JANKA (J) Ratings for various wood species are determined by the number of pounds of pressure required, to halfway press a steel ball, with a diameter of .444 inches, into the topside and ends of a board.
“Janka is the International Standard Test for Relative Hardness. In North America, certifiable test results are provided by the United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Services, Forest Products Laboratory.